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  1. page Bibliography edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Primary References Th…

    I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN.
    Primary References
    Theoretical
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    Rogers, M.E. (1980). Nursing: A science of unitary man. In J.P. Riehl & C. Roy, Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 329-337). New York: Appleton- Century-Crofts.
    Rogers, M.E. (1981). Science of unitary man. A paradigm for nursing. In G.E. Lasker (Ed.), Applied systems and cybernetics. Vol. 4. Systems research in health care, biocybernetics and ecology (pp. 1719-1722). New York: Pergamon Press.
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    approach to nursing care[[#|nursing care]] (pp. 390-391).
    Rogers, M.E. (1983). Science of unitary human beings: A paradigm for nursing. In I.W. Clements and F.B. Roberts, Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 219-227). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Rogers, M.E. (1985). A paradigm for nursing. In R. Wood & J. Kekahbah (Eds.), Examining the cultural implications of Martha E. Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings (pp. 13-23). Lecompton, KS: Wood -Kekahbah Associates.
    Rogers, M.E. (1986). Science of unitary human beings. In V.M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings (pp. 3-8). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
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    patterns in nursing education[[#|nursing education]] (pp. 121-123).
    Rogers, M.E. (1987). Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. In R.R. Parse, Nursing science. Major paradigms, theories, and critiques (pp. 139-146). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
    Rogers, M.E. (1988). Nursing science and art: A prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1, 99-102.
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    Rogers, M.E. (1992). Nightingale's notes on nursing: Prelude to the 21st century. In F.N. Nightingale, Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not (Commemorative edition, pp. 58-62). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
    Rogers, M.E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27-34.
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    M.E. (1992). Window[[#|Window]] on science
    Rogers, M. E. (1994). The science of unitary human beings: Current perspectives. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7, 33–35.
    Education and Professional
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    Rogers, M.E. (1968). For public safety: Higher education’s responsibility for professional education in nursing. Hartwick Review, 5(1), 21–25.
    Rogers, M.E. (1969). Nursing research: Relevant to practice. Proceedings of the fifth nursing research conference. New York: American Nurses’ Association.
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    planning for graduate education[[#|graduate education]] in nursing.
    Rogers, M.E. (1970). Yesterday a nurse—today a manager—what now? Journal of the New York State Nurses’ Association 1(1), 15–21.
    Rogers, M.E. (1972). Nurses’ expanding role and other euphemisms. Journal of the New York State Nurses’ Association, 3(4), 5–10.
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    Malinski, V.M. (1985). The relationship between hyperactivity in children and perception of short wavelength light: An investigation into the conceptual system proposed by Dr. Martha E. Rogers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4459B.
    Miller, F. A. (1985). The relationship of sleep, wakefulness, and beyond waking experiences. (Doctoral Dissertation, New York University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 116B.
    McDonald,[[#|McDonald]], S. (1986).
    Dzurec, L. C. (1986). The nature of power experienced by individuals manifesting patterning labeled schizophrenic: An investigation of the principle of helicy. (Doctoral Dissertation, Case Western University) Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(11), 4467B.
    Butcher, H.K. (1986), Repatterning of Time Experience and Human Field Motion During the Experience of Pleasant Guided Imagery: An Experimental Investigation Within Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings.(Masters Thesis, University of Toronto, 1986). Masters Abstracts International. University Microfilms International, No. MBZ13-36065.
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    Carboni, J.T. (1996). Coming home: An investigation of the enfolding-unfolding movement of human environmental energy field patterns within the nursing home setting and the enfoldment of health health-as-wholeness-and harmony by nurse and client. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.
    Todaro-Franceschi, V. (1997). The enigma of energy: A philosophical inquiry. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University. (UMI No. 9819881)
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    science perspective. UnpublishedUnpublished doctoral dissertation,
    Wall, Lisa Marie, (1999). An exploration of hope and power among lung cancer patients who have and have not participated in a preoperative exercise program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.
    Wright, B.W. (1999). An investigation of the relationship of trust and power in adults using Martha Rogers science of unitary human beings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.
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    Farren, A. T.(2006). An examination of the relations amongst Power, Uncertainty, Self-transcendence, and Quality of Life in breast cancer survivors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.
    Ackerman, Shirley E. (2006). An investigation of the relationship among quality of life, monitored exercise, perceived social support and power for men and women participating in a Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York.
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    mindfulness meditation, UnpublishedUnpublished doctoral dissertation,
    Secondary Texts:
    Malinski, V. M. (1986). Explorations on Martha E. Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
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    Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 10, 124-138.
    Todaro- Franceschi, V. (2003). Mistakes in research: An appeal for tolerance. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 110-113.
    Todaro-Franceschi, V. (2006).V.(2006). Synchronicity Related
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    Natural Healing
    Modality. Spirituality

    Modality.Spirituality
    and Health
    Vitale, A. T., & O’Connor, P. C. (2006). The effects of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20, 263-274.
    Walling, A. (2006). Therapeutic modulation of the psychoneuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(4), 135-143.
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  2. page Epilogue edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Epilogue: Sustaining N…

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    Epilogue: Sustaining Nursing Science
    The science of unitary human beings provides a comprehensive philosophical and theoretical foundation for nursing. Rogers' abstract system is grounded in numerous contemporary scientific theores ranging from relativity theory, quantum theory, quantum cosmology, systems theory, chaos theory, and evolutionary theory; all enveloped in a humanistic philosophy. The focus on unitary human beings as pandimensional, irreducible wholes in mutual process with their environment sets forth a conceptual systems that establishes nursing as a distinct discipline, which like all other disciples, has its own unique focus. The strength of a discipline is not how similar it is with other disciplines, but rather the value of its uniqueness.
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    in any nursing care[[#|nursing care]] situation.
    What can assure that the science of unitary human beings becomes integral to the theoretical basis of nursing?
    11.1 The End of Nursing Science?
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    knowledge in nursing education[[#|nursing education]] and practice.
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    nursing-theory guided education,[[#|education]], research, and
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    science, decreasing attendance[[#|attendance]] at the
    How can we assure that in this world, the science of unitary human beings will continue.
    11.2 Sustaining the Vision
    Assuring the survival of Rogers’ vision requires a concerted effort of all Rogerian scholars toward living the values inherent in Rogerian science while making Rogers’ science and vision of nursing visible to all. Like the mass synchronization of fireflies and the sustaining energy of stars, it is incumbent on all Rogerians to make the science of unitary human being visible in all realms of nursing and in the public in general. The survival of Rogers’ vision requires effort directed toward creating fundamental change, transformation, and new direction.
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    synchronization of energy[[#|energy]] of those
    Third, Kotter explains one needs to develop a vision and strategy to guide and direct the change effort. Visions are about possibilities, about desired futures. Visions are ideals, standards of excellence, expressions of optimism and hope. Visions communicate what makes us singular and unequaled and ideal reveal our higher order value preferences. Visions give focus to human energy (Kouzes & Posner, 1997).
    Kotter’s fourth process of creating change is communicating the change vision. Below are a number of visions or “luminescent beacons” to provide direction in sustaining and advancing Rogers’ vision of nursing. While a number of visions address nursing theory-based practice more generally, any vision that is designed to enhance the establishment of nursing theory-based practice as foundational to nursing will help actualize the vision of sustaining and advancing Rogerian nursing science. A beacon is usually a light used as a “signaling or guiding device” (American Heritage Dictionary, 2000, p. 155). Thus, each vision is offered as a beacon of light signaling a fundamental change, transformation, and new direction guiding the advancement of nursing theory-based practice more generally and in many instances, Rogerian science specifically.
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  3. page Chapter 10 Design for the 21 Century edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Type in the content of…

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    Type in the content of our new page here.
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  4. page Chapter 9 Measurement Tools edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Proposed Chapter Conte…

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    Proposed Chapter Content Outline---list may not be complete
    For each tool:
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  5. page Chapter 8 Rogerian Research Methods edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. 8.1 Approaches to Roge…

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    8.1 Approaches to Rogerian Research
    Research is the bedrock of nursing practice (Butcher, 2006). The Science of Unitary Human Beings has a long history of theory-testing research. As new practice theories and health patterning modalities evolve from the Science of Unitary Human Beings, there remains a need to test the viability and usefulness of theories derived from the SUHB as well as testing for changes in patterning associated with voluntary health patterning strategies. The mass of Rogerian research has been reviewed in a number of publications (Caroselli & Barrett, 1998; Dykeman & Loukissa, 1993; Fawcett, 2005; Malinski, 1986, 1994; Phillips, 1989b; Watson, Barrett, Hastings-Tolsma, Johnson, & Gueldner, 1997).
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    Ference
    Malinski
    McDonald[[#|McDonald]]
    Cowling
    Alligood
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  6. page Chapter 7 Practice Methods edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. 7.1 Introduction New …

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    7.1 Introduction
    New world views require new ways of thinking, sciencing, languaging, and practicing. It is important to note that the nursing process practice method and classification systems are not consistent with the assumptions and beliefs articulated in Rogerian nursing science. In early writings, Rogers (1970) did refer to nursing process and nursing diagnosis. However, in later years, she asserted that nursing diagnoses were not consistent with her scientific system. Rogers (quoted in Smith, 1988) stated: Nursing diagnosis is a static term that is quite inappropriate for a dynamic system . . . it [nursing diagnosis] is an outdated part of an old world view, and I think by the turn of the century, there is going to be new ways of organizing knowledge (p. 83). Nursing diagnoses are normative, particularistic, and reductionistic labels describing cause-and-effect (i.e., “related-to”) relationships inconsistent with the view of a person as an irreducible whole more than and different from the sum of parts. Nursing diagnoses are judgments based on societal norms for what is considered healthy and what is a deviation from health. Within the simultaneity paradigm, health is a value that reflects the choices that each person makes. The nursing process is a stepwise sequential process inconsistent with this nonlinear or a causal view of reality. The term intervention is not consistent with practice within a unitary perspective. Intervention means to “come, appear, or lie between two things” (American Heritage Dictionary, 2000, p. 916). From a unitary perspective, persons and their environment are integral and mutually related. No in between exists; human and environmental fields are inseparable. The nurse and the patient are inseparable and interconnected. The idea of outcomes infers predictability. Therefore, outcomes are inconsistent with the unitary notion that the universe is characterized by unpredictability (Butcher, 1997). When asked Martha Rogers would often say that it is up to Rogerian nurse scholars to develop practice methods that were consistent with the postulates and principles of the science of unitary human beings.
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    7.3.2 Cowling’s Pattern Appreciation Practice Method
    Cowling (1990) expanded Barrett’s original practice methodology by proposing a template comprising ten constituents for the development of Rogerian practice models consistent with the postulates and principles of Rogerian science. Cowling (1993b, 1997) refined the template and proposed that “pattern appreciation” was a method for unitary knowing in both Rogerian nursing research and practice. Cowling preferred the term “appreciation” rather than “assessment” or “appraisal” because appraisal is associated with evaluation. Appreciation has broader meaning, which includes “being full aware or sensitive to or realizing; being thankful or grateful for; and enjoying or understanding critically or emotionally” (Cowling, 1997, p. 130). Pattern appreciation is approached with gratefulness, enjoyment, and understanding and reaches for the essence of pattern. Pattern appreciation has a potential for deeper understanding.
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    focus of nursing care.[[#|nursing care]].
    Next, the person’s experiences, perceptions, and expressions are unitary manifestations of pattern and provide a focus for pattern appreciation.
    Third, “pattern appreciation requires an inclusive perspective of what counts as pattern information (energetic manifestations)” (Cowling, 1993b, p. 202). Thus, any information gathered from and about the client, family, or community, including sensory information, feelings, thoughts, values, in¬tro¬spective insights, intuitive apprehensions, lab values, and physiological measures, are viewed as “energetic manifestations” emerging from the human/ environmental mutual field process.
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  7. page Chapter 6 Rogerian Theories edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Introduction to Rogeri…

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    Introduction to Rogerian Theory Development: Theories Derived from Rogers Science of Unitary Human Being
    Theories Developed by Rogers
    6.1 Theory of Accelerating Evolution
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    before, in cars and[[#|cars and]] high-speed trains
    Rogers hypothesized that hyperactive children provide a good example of speeded-up rhythms relative to other children. They would be expected to show indications of faster rhythms, increased motion, and other behaviors indicative of this shift. She expected that relative diversity would manifest in different patterns for individuals within any age cohort, concluding that chronological age is not a valid indicator of change in this system: “[I]n fact, as evolutionary diversity continues to accelerate, the range and variety of differences between individuals also increase; the more diverse field patterns evolve more rapidly than the less diverse ones” (Rogers, 1992, p. 30).
    The theory of accelerating evolution provides the basis for reconceptualizing the aging process. Rogers (1970, 1980) used the principle of helicy and the theory of accelerating evolution to put forward the notion that aging was a continuously creative process of growing diversity of field patterning. Therefore, aging is not a process of decline or “running down.” Rather, field patterns become increasingly diverse as we age as older adults need less sleep, are more satisfied with personal relationships, are better able to handle their emotions, better able to cope with stress, have increasing crystallized intelligence, wisdom, and improved problem solving abilities (Whitbourne, 2008). Butcher (2003) expanded on Rogers “negentropic” view of aging in outlining key elements for a “unitary model of aging as emerging brilliance” that includes replacing ageist sterotypes with new positive images of aging; and developing policies, lifestyles, and technologies that enhance successful aging and longevity. Within a unitary view of aging, later life becomes a potential for growth, “a life imbued with splendor, meaning, accomplishment, active involvement, growth, adventure, wisdom, experience, compassion, glory, and brilliance . . .” (Butcher, 2003, p. 64).
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    The theory of the emergence of paranormal phenomena suggests that experiences commonly labeled “paranormal” are actually manifestations of the changing diversity and innovation of field patterning. They are pandimensional forms of awareness, examples of pandimensional reality that manifest visionary, beyond waking potentials. Meditation, for example, transcends traditionally perceived limitations of time and space, opening the door to new and creative potentials. Therapeutic touch provides another example of such pandimensional awareness. Both participants often share similar experiences during therapeutic touch, such as a visualization sharing common features that evolves spontaneously for both, a shared experience arising within the mutual process both are experiencing, with neither able to lay claim to it as a personal, private experience.
    The idea of a pandimensional or nonlinear domain provides a framework for understanding paranormal phenomena. A nonlinear domain unconstrained by space and time provides an explanation of seemingly inexplicable events and processes. Rogers (1992) even asserted that within the Science of Unitary Human Beings, psychic phenomena become “normal” rather than “paranormal.” Dean Radin, director of the Conscious Research Laboratory at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas, suggests that an understanding of nonlocal connections along with the relationship between awareness and quantum effects provides a framework for understanding paranormal phenomena (Radin, 1997). “Deep interconnectedness” demonstrated by Bell’s Theorem embraces the interconnectedness of everything unbounded by space and time. In addition, the work of Dossey (1993, 1999), Nadeau and Kafatos (1999), Sheldrake (1988), and Talbot (1991) explicate the role of nonlocality in evolution, physics, cosmology, consciousness, paranormal phenomena, healing, and prayer.
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    occurring changing energy[[#|energy]] patterns. Pandimensionality
    Todaro-Franceschi (2006) identified the existence of synchronicity experiences in many who were grieving the loss of a spouse, a pioneering effort in delineating a unitary view of death and dying. From the results of her qualitative study she described how such experiences help the bereaved to relate to their deceased loved ones in a new, meaningful way rather than in the traditional view of learning to let go and move on.
    6.3 Manifestations of Field Patterning
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  8. page Chapter 5 The Science of Unitary Human Beings Principles edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Introduction of the Pr…

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    Introduction of the Principles of Homeodynamics
    Rogers' derived there principles of homeodynamics which together describe the "nature and direction" of change. Rogers stated that the principles are a way of perceiving unitary human beings and that the "evidence of which these principles hold arises out of examination of the real world (1970, p. 102). Furthermore, the principles are to serve as a guide for both research and practice.All four postulates (energy filed, openness, pattern, and pandimensionality) are evident in each of the three principles which propose a view of change that is evolutionary. Change is continuous because energy fields are continuously dynamic. In Rogers original work published in 1970, there were 4 principles: reciprocy, synchrony, helicy, and resonancy. In the mid 1970, Rogers combined the principles of reciprocy and synchrony and suggested "complementarity" better captured the idea of "mutual simultaneous interaction." Malinski (1994) pointed out Rogers felt students were interpreting the principles as they were understood in other disciples, and continued to refine them for the purpose of greater clarity. What is also evident in Rogers' revisions in terminology, like the change of terminology from multidimensionailty to pandimensionality, is she was guided by the need to give clarity to idea of oneness of a unitary reality. For example, complementarity conveys mutiplicity, as did the terms reciprocy and interaction, whereas "unitary" was meant to convey a "irreducible and indivisible whole." In 1983 she renamed complementarity, integrality and dropped terms like "interaction" from the definition and instead used the term "mutual process."
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  9. page Chapter 4 The Science of Unitary Human Beings Postulates edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. Introduction to the Po…

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    Introduction to the Postulates
    The science of unitary human beings comprises of four major postulates and three major principles. Rogers repeatedly stated that she did not create a "theory" but rather an abstract system, a science, from which many theories may be derived. Because science is open-ended and continuously evolving, new knowledge emerges continuously, thus she preferred using the term "postulate" rather than concept. All science, she said, undergoes corrections, alterations, revisions, and change for greater clarity and accuracy. Science is updating through basic theoretical research and testing. Therefore, Rogers' "postulates," like any science, offers a tentative view of nursing that requires continuous validation through rigorous scientific research and logical analysis.
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  10. page Chapter 3 Rogerian Cosmology and Philosophy edited I WILL BE MOVING THIS SITE TO PRESSBOOKS BEFORE WIKISPACES CLOSES DOWN. 3.1 Rogerian Cosmology…

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    3.1 Rogerian Cosmology
    Rogers’ classic 1970 text, The Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing, begins with a series of cosmological questions: “How did the universe begin? Or did it have a beginning?” Are its dimensions finite or infinite? Whence came this planet we call home? In what hidden past did life emerge? From what shrouded long ago did the family of man arise to portend a future that would one day reach beyond the stars?”(p. 3). Butcher (2006) points out Rogers must have clearly understood that ultimately her theoretical system or any other “does not develop out of a vacuum” (Rogers, 1970, p. 4) but rather is embedded in a larger understanding of the nature of the universe. Rogers understood that our choice of cosmology not only determines our image of ourselves, but also the nature of nursing. In other words, nursing mirrors the fundamental characteristics of the universe, or at least how we choose to understand the universe.
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    age, shape, wrinkles,[[#|wrinkles]], origin, and
    Rogers, in creating the science of unitary human beings, set forth a new cosmology for nursing that is a synthesis and re-synthesis of a wide range of theories derived from contemporary science, philosophy, and art. In essence, Rogers drew on: a) Einstein’s ideas about relativity and the unity of spacetime as a foundation for her postulate of pandimensionality; b) Heinsenberg’s principle of uncertainty to describe a universe of unpredictable nature of change; c) von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory to describe a negentropic universe of open systems which evolve toward increasing innovation, creativity, and diversity; d) quantum theory to postulate energy fields as the fundamental unit of the living and non-living; e) cybernetics and system theory to support the notion of a universe characterized by integral irreducible wholes that are more and different than the sum of parts; and f) a wide range of sciences to support notions of evolutionary unity, patterning, and rhythmicity. For example, Rogers attributed her unique synthesis to many sources including Nightingale, Teilhard de Chardin, Heisenberg, Alfred North Whitehead, Darwin, Toulmin, Bertrand Russell, Frankl, Polanyi, deBroglie, Whyte, and Popper to name just a few.
    The synthesis of these ideas leads to a Rogerian cosmology that views the universe and human beings as integral, irreducible pandimensional energy fields identified by pattern, evolving rhythmically and unpredictably toward infinite diversity and innovativeness. The essence of the Rogerian cosmology is the fundamental unity of the universe. “A whole cannot be understood when it is reduced to its particulars . . . . The unitary nature of environment is equally irreducible (Rogers, 1992, p. 29). Thus, the universe and all that exists are understood as irreducible and indivisible energy field, different and more than the sum of parts. Rogers maintained that an individual’s boundaries are imaginary and that the human field is infinite, integral, and co-extensive with the universe. The universe is postulated to be pandimensional, meaning the universe is a union of all dimensions and is an infinite domain beyond special or temporal attributes. A universe characterized by pandimensionality provides an understanding of nonlocality, acausality, unpredictability, infinite realities and dimensions, and paranormal phenomenon (Butcher, 1998b). Philosophies emerge within cosmologies. Furthermore, the manner one interprets a particular cosmology filters down to the level of practice/research or action (see Figure 3-1).
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